Kingdom of Thailand celebrates Wan Chatramongkhol
(Coronation Day) May 5
Monday, May 5 marks the 53rd anniversary of the
Coronation of His Majesty King Bhumibol Adulyadej the Great. The day is
celebrated as a national holiday, and all government offices and commercial
banks will observe the day (close).
being crowned King of Thailand, the 9th in the Chakri Dynasty (Rama IX), His
Majesty King Bhumibol Adulyadej the Great took a sacred oath to rule with
Righteousness, for the Benefit and Happiness of the Siamese People, which He
has done magnificently, garnering tremendous respect from His people. King
Bhumibol Adulyadej the Great, the longest reigning monarch in the world.
Long Live the King!
Each year on the 5th of May, the Kingdom of Thailand
commemorates the day when, in 1950, the Coronation Ceremony was held for His
Majesty King Bhumibol Adulyadej the Great, the 9th in the Chakri Dynasty (Rama
His Majesty the King, after studying in Europe, returned
to Thailand and was crowned King during an elaborate and highly intricate
ceremony that out lavished all previous coronations in Thailand.
A week prior to His being crowned King, on April 28,
1950, H.M. King Bhumibol and Mom Rajawongse Sirikit Kitayakara were married.
Following the Coronation the King returned to Switzerland to continue
The Coronation Ceremony reinforces the stature of the
Kings of Thailand. The first such elaborate ceremony was performed when Pho
Khun Phamuang succeeded Pho Khun Bangklangthao as the ruling King of Muang
Sukhothai. Phaya Lithai, a former leader in Sukhothai, left a historical
record in stone describing the coronation ceremony in Sukhothai at Wat
In the beginning of the Ratanakosin era, the first King
in the Chakri Dynasty (King Buddha Yot Fa Chulalokmaharach) took the title
of Rama I and moved the capital of Siam from Thonburi to the opposite bank
of the Chao Phraya River, and constructed Krung Ratanakosin (Bangkok). In
the process of building the Royal Palace and Wat Prakaew (Temple of the
Emerald Buddha) the first King in the House of Chakri refined the coronation
ceremony, establishing important protocol that has lasted to this day. All
Kings to follow not undergoing the coronation ceremony would be unable to
assume the term "Phrabat" in front of the King’s title of "Somdej
Phrachaoyuhua", and more significantly, the symbol of the nine-tiered
umbrella would also not be permissible or officially recognized.
The elaborate coronation ceremony of His Majesty King
Bhumibol Adulyadej the Great included all the ancient rituals required for
assuming the full title and the nine-tiered umbrella. King Bhumibol
Adulyadej then bestowed the honor posthumously on His brother King Ananda
Mahidol. King Bhumibol Adulyadej’s benevolent act raised King Ananda
Mahidol’s regal status from seven to a nine-tiered umbrella.
During the reign of King Mongkut (Rama IV), Buddhist
monks and Brahmin priests were incorporated into the coronation ceremony to
conduct rituals to sanctify the auspicious occasion. Previously the ceremony
was arranged and conducted by the Royal Palace staff and members of the
The annual coronation ceremony is currently a three -day
affair, starting with a ritual "tham bun" ceremony on May 3 to
honor the King’s ancestors. Later on the first day, another ceremony is
performed, whereby flags of honor are issued to distinguish various military
The following day, Buddhist ceremonies continue with
chanting rituals, prayers and Brahman priests announcing the auspicious
occasion forthcoming the next day (May 5).
On the 5th of May, His Majesty King Bhumibol Adulyadej
the Great (Rama IX) conducts a merit making ceremony, presenting offerings
to Buddhist monks, and leads a "Wienthien" ceremony, walking three
times around sacred grounds at the Temple of the Emerald Buddha.
In the evening the King conducts another sacred ceremony:
changing the yellow cloth on the Emerald Buddha, the guardian symbol
protecting the Thai people, which was transferred from Thonburi to Wat Phra
Kaew by Rama I.
Many rooms in the Royal Palace are opened for public
viewing on Coronation Day. Auspicious ceremonies are performed and displays
depicting Royal achievements are exhibited to reconfirm the King’s
SARS - a triumph for WHO’s Public Health initiatives
But a failure in responsible
by Dr Iain Corness
At a meeting with the media in Bangkok, the World Health
Organization’s (WHO) executive director of Communicable Diseases Cluster,
Dr. David Heymann, spoke on the containment measures that have seen the
transmission of SARS decline world-wide, other than perhaps in China.
Vietnam was cited as being the first country to be removed from the list of
countries with local transmission of SARS. However, he also stated that,
"The public has perceived a far greater risk than there actually
is." In addition, Dr. Heymann said, "International travel should
continue at its normal rate."
Unfortunately, following the Global Alert given by the
WHO on March 15th this year, as much misinformation as factual reporting has
been given to the general public. Concepts that flying in airplanes can give
the SARS virus to travellers have been fuelled by reports of previously well
travellers claiming to have caught the virus in flight. The actual number of
these cases range between three to five to fifteen, depending upon whose
reports one reads; however, as pointed out by Warren Gerig, the General
Manager for Thailand and Indochina for United Airlines, since the initial
SARS outbreak, over 200 million people have flown around the world. Even
with the worst case scenario, 15 cases out of 200 million travellers is an
infinitesimal risk. But the public are now too afraid to travel, with
catastrophic results for the tourism industry.
Dr. Heymann admitted that there was a great deal of
difference between the real and perceived risk, but said that the function
of the WHO was to monitor and contain disease entities, rather than
disseminate information to the public. At the meeting with the media held in
Bangkok he did say that he had spoken on this incorrect perception with some
US based media groups, but felt that it was the media that had to correct
the public misconceptions, while agreeing that, "Individuals have a
very low risk of this disease." This is in line with the reports from
UK based Infectious Diseases specialist, Professor Roy Anderson, who has
stated that SARS is not a very contagious form of influenza.
In his opening remarks, Dr. Heymann said, "The press
has been responsible in its reporting (of SARS)" but as regards the
public misconception of the disease, he was obviously less prepared to deal
with this aspect. While Dr. Heymann may like to attempt to shift the
responsibility back on to the media, it is the media’s function to report
the happenings in the world, not to adjudicate or speculate upon the
To bring the SARS outbreak into correct perspective, malaria claims more
than one million people every year, but does not receive the same degree of
public information saturation. It is the WHO that informs the media of world
health problems. It is now time for the WHO to make some initiatives to
inform the public of the low health risks and by doing so, resuscitate the
very sick world tourism industry, a side effect of its treatment of the
minor (in global terms) SARS disease, which has claimed fewer than 400
Tourism will recover after SARS ends
Government position explained
Permanent secretary of the Tourism and Sports Ministry,
Chadej Insawang said tourism in Thailand would recover when the SARS
epidemic stops spreading. "Although Thailand is SARS free as the
government has announced, we have been affected in all sectors, especially
in tourism. Numbers of inbound tourists have canceled their trips to
Thailand indefinitely. All we can do is to assure them that Thailand is
totally free of SARS," he said.
As to future projects to be launched after the ending of
SARS, "There might be special discounts and promotions in each hotel to
attract foreign tourists to return to Thailand" Chadej said.
"All tourism sectors should be prepared to handle
the situation because we do not know when it will be over," he added.
He was of the opinion that all the hotel campaigns and promotions will pull
them out of the recession situation but it is hoped the SARS situations will
be under control very soon.
Stone axes found on Doi Phu Sang
Dropped 4,000 years ago, but picked up now!
The Archeology Project at Thammasart University has found
evidence of a stone axe industry more than 4,000 years old in Nan Province.
The archaeology students and community representatives surveyed Doi Phu Sang
in Tambon Na Sao, Muang District, Nan. They found historical and
archaeological remains, including stone axes and unfinished materials.
Experts suspect that these are clues to the existence of
human civilizations 4,000 years ago and that these ancient peoples created
the equipment for hunting animals and agricultural activities.
Experts also think that in the past Doi Phu Sang may have
been the center of a stone axe industry. Axe head stones can be found over
more than 60 percent of the mountain area. Many of the historical stones are
still in good condition.
The team also found volcanic stones, from which it can be
assumed that Doi Phu Sang used to be a volcano one million years ago.
Local organizations plan to collect these historical
stone axes and set up a museum as another tourist attraction.
Entertainment industry wants venues to stay open later
Government weighing up pros and cons, but don’t expect change to come soon
The House Committee on Tourism inspected tourist
nightspots in Chiang Mai City as part of a Thailand wide study on allowing
for later closing times for the entertainment venues. Many provinces, Chiang
Mai included, want to extend the nationally imposed closing time from 2 a.m.
to 4 a.m.
Suraphol Kiatchaiyakorn, chairman of the House Committee
on Tourism, disclosed that this recent Chiang Mai visit was to follow up
first hand information and look for possible problems in the sectors
concerned. These facts would be collected for further study for both
advantages and disadvantages on the proposed 4 a.m. closure.
For example, would it be good for tourism and the
economy, but would it affect the social order?
Chiang Mai is the second province to be studied, after
Phuket. The next on the list for the House Committee on Tourism are Pattaya
and Hat Yai. After that, the information would be presented to the
government within 90 days.
Food’s good, says Provincial Public Health Office
Only one case of contamination found
Chiang Mai Provincial Public Health Office has taken up
screening food for contaminants in all Chiang Mai markets.
Mai Governor Pisit Khetphasook looks over some meat during his investigation
for contaminated foods.
Chiang Mai Governor Pisit Khetphasook this past week led
his officials into the marketplaces around town to select items to examine,
searching for prohibited substances used to make food look more attractive.
These include salbutamol, sodium borate, sodium hydrosulfite, dithionite,
and other toxic chemicals.
12 fresh markets and 9 department stores in Chiang Mai
were visited, starting at Siriwatthana Market or Kad Thanin. Initial results
found only one meatball in Om Koi District with traces of sodium borate.
Manorom Sinthapha-archakul, deputy chief of Chiang Mai
Public Health Office’s Consumer Protection Committee, stated that the food
in the Om Koi case would be sent for further examination, and that officials
would seek more details as to where it was manufactured.
The office released figures showing that since 1999, contamination has
fallen from 7.56 percent to only 1 percent this year. "We are going to
continue to examine for contaminants and prohibited food additives in many
places. If we find some poisoning or contaminated food, we will pursue the
manufacturers," said Manorom.
Water, water everywhere ... after Songkran
But mainly from leaking pipes
69 deteriorated water pipes are scheduled for repair
following recent breakages, said Thammasak Tiensawat, director of Public
Waterworks, Zone 9 Chiang Mai. This project is continuing from last year,
and includes renewing old pipes in many areas. This year’s project started
after Songkran and planners predict it will be finished by the end of
Thammasak said that the old cement pipes were very often
breaking, and government has allocated a budget of 50 million baht to solve
During the restructuring there may be temporary
inconvenience for people nearby the construction area.
More information can be obtained from Chiang Mai
Waterworks at 053 233 479 and 1662.
in Chiang Rai this weekend
A strong roll-up of people in tourism-related businesses
will take part in a seminar this weekend promoted by the Tourism Federation
of Thailand. Chiang Rai will host the seminar with organizer Chulaphant
Sittiwongse, the president of Chiang Rai Tourist Business Association,
saying that interest has been very strong.
Chulaphant stated that the venue is the Rim Kok Resort
Hotel (Chiang Rai) and the regional seminar on May 3 is titled Air
Transportation Network and Regional Aviation Hub, with Vichit na Ranong, the
president of the Tourism Federation of Thailand, being another of the
The seminar will be addressed by Sonthaya Khunpluem,
Minister of Tourism and Sports, who will give a special lecture on the topic
of "Aviation Policy and Tourism Promotion".
Ceramic producers in Lampang form cooperative
Fighting competition from China and Vietnam
Anusit Phuwaseth, Lampang Chamber of Commerce president,
said that Lampang ceramic producers have formed a cooperative called Lampang
Ceramic Cluster Development Group (CCDG) since the ceramic industry in the
province has to contend with other competitors in foreign markets.
In the cooperative, the members will give each other
business assistance, exchange knowledge, techniques and technology in
production of the ceramic products.
"The CCDG has been given a 5 million baht budget and
support from the government and the Industrial Finance Corporation of
Thailand (IFCT), and Lampang Province also provides ceramic specialists and
operational techniques for training," Anusit said.
Lampang ceramics are exported to Europe, the United
States, Asia and Japan. Last year, Lampang gained 4 billion baht from export
trading and this year, he was sure that the province would increase this to
5 billion baht.
However, CCDG is concerned that Vietnam and China will
become new competitors for Thailand’s producers, since the former have
developed their products’ qualities to be accepted worldwide, and offer
them at cheap prices.
Should October 14th be a national holiday?
Government under pressure from democracy groups
Many private organizations are working to push the
government into setting October 14th each year as a national holiday to
remind the country of the brave students who ended up losing their lives in
the name of freedom.
The organizations include the Democrat Organization, the
Committee Fighting for Democracy, Federation of Thailand Students, October
Network Organization and a group representing the students’ relatives. All
these organizations recently participated in a meeting to organize the 30th
anniversary of the October 14 uprising.
This event, held each year, has as its primary aims to
remind the people of Thailand of the students who sacrificed themselves in
an attempt to bring real democracy to the country.
One of the leaders of the Committee Fighting for
Democracy, Suwinai Wankaew said, "At the meeting it was agreed to set
up a new group of our representatives to work with government in holding the
event marking the 30th anniversary of October 14. This year’s event will
remind the new generation to think and thank those heroes and heroines who
fought for democracy in Thailand."
Participants at the meeting also agreed to push for
October 14th to become a national holiday of remembrance. "Many heroes
and heroines died on October 14. They should not be forgotten," said
Other items discussed and agreed were that the events of
October 14th, 1973 and October 6th, 1976 must be put in the school history
books so that students have a chance to know what happened in the past.
The government claims that these events are of national
importance but there is nothing to be seen to verify this. The feeling of
the meeting was that it was only fitting that history should be written in
the school curriculum and the date be designated as a national holiday.
Charter flight company gaining from SARS
Jen Channarong, managing director of Siam G.E., a charter
flight company, said that the spread of SARS has increased their business.
Although the company has run operations for only 6 months, the number of
clients during April increased 30% compared with the previous month.
Since the media hype began about SARS, people appear to
prefer traveling on charter flights because it gives them privacy and they
feel less at risk of catching SARS from other passengers, even though this
mode of transfer is not very great.
Siam G.E. also says their passengers arrive at their
destinations faster than regular commercial flights since the charter plane
does not land at main airports so that their passengers do not have to wait
in line for SARS checks at the airport. "People’s fear of being
infected with SARS and terrorism has increased our business to 20 flight
reservations per month."
Regular routes include Chiang Mai, Phuket, Kanchanaburi,
Hua Hin, and industrial estates. Jen said that there is not much competition
in the charter flight business, and most of their customers are foreigners,
with 60% businessmen and 40% tourists.
Charters, including service charges, cost 30,000 baht per
hour and the planes have 12-14 seat capacities.
Chiang Mai to become
If it achieves healthy standards
Phitsanu Thepthong and Supatatt Dangkrueng
The Department of Health Services Support wants to
develop health services and related businesses in this region, with Chiang
Mai designated as the pilot project for Thailand’s Northern Wellness
Destination, according to Director General Dr Narongsak Angkhasuwaphala.
of the Department of Public Services Support, Dr Narongsak Angkhasuwaphala.v
He told Chiangmai Mail that Chiang Mai should
become ready to realize its high potential for health services, hospitals,
clinics, resorts and spas, transportation, communications, tourist spots,
golf course and other facilities, provided they reach world class levels.
The director general added that this government policy
could really help boost health services related businesses with
"tourism packages" to promote various health products.
The workshop, held at the Northern Heritage Resort and
Spa, titled "Chiang Mai as Thailand’s Northern Wellness
Destination" was about the promotional package. Director General Dr
Narongsak chaired the workshop, and 70 representatives from government
organizations and private sectors participated.
Dr Narongsak said that Northern Thailand has high tourism
potential, incorporating spas, hospitals, medical checkups and other health
related endeavors. "Chiang Mai City has several educational institutes,
universities, and medical scientific centers to support this strategy,"
"If there are any products that are not up to
standard, we have institutes, like Chiang Mai University, Scientific
Services Center, Pharmacy faculty and other various academic and technical
institutes that could help upgrading," he said.
This Chiang Mai integrated strategy was formulated by a
working committee led by Chiang Mai Governor Pisit Khetphasook, and Dr
Wuthikrai Mungmai, chief of Chiang Mai Provincial Public Health, with
representatives from the Ministry of Commerce, Tourism Authority of
Thailand, Thai Airways International, and tourism-related business
Dr Wuthikrai Mungmai, chief of Chiang Mai Provincial Public Health
Office, believes that tourist numbers would be increased if Chiang Mai had
world standard health services.
One Tambon - One Product
to be promoted overseas
20,000 million baht income predicted
The Thai government is urging that products from the One
Tambon - One Product scheme be sold in international markets, aiming to
counter financial problems within poorer villagers.
Rachen Pojanasunthorn, director general of the Foreign
Trade Department, stated that the government is pushing these products to
foreign markets to serve a demand for locally produced Thai goods. About 700
categories of these products include personal items, ornaments and home
utensils, with the main markets for the scheme’s products being Japan,
Europe and the United States.
Within the first year, the scheme’s products have
brought 1 billion baht in revenue into the country. In the future, it is
hoped that the products will earn the country up to 20 billion baht.
The Foreign Trade Department has categorized the products
into a Generalized System of Preference (GSP) from Asian markets, Japan,
USA, and Europe. Thai herbal products have gained GSP from Singapore,
Malaysia, Japan, USA and Europe by becoming import tax exempt. Thai wooden
products are also gaining tax exemption from Singapore, Indonesia, Japan and
Lao Airline pushing Luang Prabang
Lao Airline (formerly Lao Aviation) and the Villa Santi
Hotel & Resort launched their Summer Package 2003 this week.
Chantara Sisounonh, the general manager of Lao Airline in
Chiang Mai, said that they jointly organized the package to encourage
tourists to travel to Laos during the low season from now to September 30.
Lao Aviation has changed its name to Lao Airline now that
the company would begin to use the AirBus 320 planes on all international
The Summer Package 2003 is a special joint promotion
program and includes Lao Airline’s round trip air ticket fare, airport
transfer in Luang Prabang and 2 nights accommodation at the deluxe room of
Villa Santi Hotel and Resort said Pany Saignavongs, director of sales and
Miss Pany said the Villa Santi Hotel, located in the
heart of Luang Prabang with its French colonial style mansion, has 23 deluxe
and 2 suite rooms available for all visitors while the Villa Santi Resort, 6
km drive from Luang Prabang and on its soft opening period, provides 48
deluxe, 1 suite and 6 villas. The clients could choose between staying at
the Villa Santi Hotel or Resort since both venues are offered at the same
Royal artificial rain being used to combat forest fires
The Royal Artificial Rain Making Operations Office was
set up in Mae Hong Son to combat the forest fires frequently occurring in
this northern province, according Saneh Warid, advisor to the Royal
Artificial Rain Making Operations Office based in Chiang Mai.
The branch office has already produced artificial rain 3
times in the Mae La Noi and Mae Sariang districts. The office has also found
that Mooing, Pay and Pang Ma Phi districts are suitable for making
artificial rain. However, to generate the rain in these 3 areas, the office
has to wait for rain bearing clouds moving from Burma across the province.
Artificial rain falls in a 5-10 km. radius. It also takes
70,000-80,000 baht per day to make the artificial rain. Saneh also mentioned
there are some problems associated with making artificial rain, particularly
the province’s humidity sometimes not being suitable. However, at present,
humidity in Mae Hong Son is at 40-50%, which is enough for production of the
Chiang Mai Neurological Hospital opens new wards
Stroke on the increase in the north
Chiang Mai Neurological Hospital has opened an 8-storey
wing to treat the increasing numbers of stroke victims in the region. Dr
Saree Tuchinda, director general of the Medical Services Department,
presided over the opening ceremony of the new building.
Dr. Saree said that the number of patients with
neurological disease is increasing by at least 10% each year. Patients with
burst blood vessels in the brain have increased by 50% to over 30,000 being
treated in the hospital.
Dr Saree said that neurological hospitals in Thailand
were researching the risk factors causing the blood vessel disease and are
actively looking for answers for the resulting paralysis. It is felt that
one reason for the increase in the North could be the consumption of foods
containing high lipid and cholesterol, such as Hang Lay northern curry, and
kaeb moo or pork skin crisps.
Mae Hong Son’s forests are disappearing
Can’t see the wood for the trees?
There is only 78% of forest left in Mae Hong Son
Province, according to Supoj Laowansiri, Mae Hong Son’s governor, after a
forest inspection in Mae Hong Son areas. The reasons given include
government officials, residents and investors employing villagers in the
areas to poach the trees, then selling them for a hefty profit.
To counteract the logging problem, the province has
launched a natural resources conservation policy to be followed by officials
in all areas, with assistance from residents who will keep a lookout for
poaching and smuggling in their areas and report back to officialdom.
Two villages in Mae Hong Son, Du La Per Village in Sob
Moei District and Mae Ki in Khun Yuam District, have been notable in that
they have been able to control and prevent deforestation in their areas.
Governor Supoj suggested that all villages in the
province should use these two villages as models and overcome their illegal
ONCB seminar told small
fry have been fried
But only 20% of big fish have been landed
Seree Thawilwang, the advisor to the Office of Narcotics
Control Board (ONCB), presided over a seminar at Lanna Palace hotel, Chiang
Mai looking at the results of the drug suppression. 103 high-ranking police
and civil servants attended the seminar.
Seree stated that the seminar would enable the police to
act more quickly on confiscation as previously police could only submit the
case to the ONCB.
During the 3 months drug suppression, the office had set
the confiscation goal at 2 billion baht and have now set a new target of 10
billion baht by December 2.
Pittaya Jinawat, ONCB Northern Region office director,
declared that the latest developments and progress of drug suppression in 17
northern provinces were excellent, with 12,000 people arrested, 90% of the
13,000 people targeted.
15,000 drug dealers surrendered to officials and
authorities. Surprisingly, 83,000 drug addicts voluntarily reported
themselves to the officials when the target was only 80,000 people.
While the net has brought up the lesser players in the
drug business, the result within government official sections is not so
good. Only around 100 officials have been punished of the 487 officials
suspected of being involved with drugs. This is only 20% of the officials
under suspicion. The 200 remaining include village headmen, police,
teachers, and other officials. The National Drug Suppression Operations
Center has asked for assistance from head office to arrest these officials.
Flood and drought problems to be overcome in Phrae
Dr. Tossaporn Serirak, Phrae Member of Parliament,
believes he has the solution to the floods during rainy season. Although
many government organizations have tried to solve these problems despite the
Irrigation Department’s drainage canal and reservoir constructions plus
the streets built by State Highway Department, the flooding continues
He said that floods are caused by the new estates
blocking the waterways resulting in floods during winter season as the water
could not drain easily in to irrigational canals. This drainage problem
causes flash floods.
The solution is to build small reservoirs blocking the
Yom River to produce irrigation water for agriculture during the dry season,
as well as containing the water during the winter floods. "This
solution can help prevent floods and fix drought problems in this province
in the long term," said MP Dr. Tossaporn.
Government to wage war
on illegal alien workers
New project after drug suppression?
The Thai government has launched a war on illegal alien
workers. Deputy police chief of the National Thai Police Office, Pol Gen
Thawatchai Pailee, acting president of the Sub-committee on Investigation
and Suppression of Alien Workers said that the government operation would
decrease the numbers of illegal workers. "The operation team will be
strict on employers, entrepreneurs and persons who illegally smuggle them
and accommodate those aliens in Thailand. Although this operation might not
put down 100 percent or find all the illegal alien workers, at least the
number will be decreased," said the deputy police chief.
Deputy Prime Minister Korn Dabbharangsri said during his
recent visit to Chiang Mai that Thailand should bring all illegal alien
employees under control. He added that illegal workers cause social problems
including drugs, crimes and disease epidemics. "If necessary, employers
should register their alien laborers with and report to authorities,"
20 Burmese illegal immigrants arrested
But what about the local agent?
Chiang Mai Tourist Police arrested 20 illegal Burmese
immigrants hiding in Chiang Mai City during the Songkran festival. Police
said that 12 women and 8 men had been arrested in Tambon Mae Hia, Muang
District, Chiang Mai.
During the festival, the aliens entered the country from
Burma coming through Thailand’s Mae Sot border checkpoint in Tak Province.
Following entry, they were hidden in the house of a Thai agent who sheltered
them before they were to be sent to work in Bangkok, Phitsanulok and Rayong
All the aliens confessed that they paid 4,000 baht each
to the agent for an opportunity to work in Thailand and they entered
Thailand amongst the crowds of people visiting the district during the
Pol Maj Archayon Kraithong, Chiang Mai tourist police
inspector said that tightened screening at the border checkpoints,
especially in Mae Sai District, Chiang Rai Province and Mae Sot in Tak
Province had produced good results.