Family Money: Choosing the Right Funds
Managing director of Westminster Portfolio Services (Thailand) Ltd.
There are literally hundreds of theories you can use to
choose individual stocks. Finding the right fund is a little more
Most independent advisers simply look at how funds have
performed in the past, arguing – somewhat spuriously – that if a manager
has outperformed his peers over the past few years, there is no reason why
he or she can’t continue to do so. There is more to it than this, but you
can go a long way just by following some simple guidelines and avoiding the
most common mistakes.
Choosing Your Fund
First, you need to look at your overall portfolio of
assets, not just unit trusts, but stocks, property and any other investments
you hold. This will give you an idea of where any holes exist, in terms of
geographical or sector exposure. It will also give you the chance to assess
your overall levels of risk, which will tell you whether you can afford to
take a punt on a high risk fund, or whether you need a safer, core holding.
You should also check that you are happy with the level of income generated
from your portfolio.
Most funds aim to deliver long-term capital growth, but a
new breed – usually referred to as ‘focus’ funds - aggressively target
out-performance by harnessing the stock-picking skills of individual
managers. These funds usually hold around 30~40 stocks, as opposed to the
usual 100 or more. Focus funds are designed to produce absolute returns and
are not, therefore, preoccupied with matching benchmark indices.
If you’re more risk-averse, or are starting out in the
investment game, you should look at funds-of-funds which, as the name
suggests, invest in a range of other mutual funds, rather than individual
stocks. But remember that these vehicles are designed to offer
diversification, not out-performance, and they can be expensive because
there are two layers of charges. As a cheap alternative, you should perhaps
be looking at tracker funds.
If you need more income, you could go for a corporate
bond fund. These come in three guises: those that buy investment-grade
bonds, those that buy high-yield bonds, and those that buy both.
Investment-grade bonds tend to be issued by quality, established companies.
Higher-yielding bonds are issued by less financially-secure companies, and
pay out a higher income to compensate for the increased risk of default.
Alternatively, you could go for an equity income fund, investing in
defensive – or ‘value’ – stocks that pay good dividends.
Assessing The Product
Once you have decided which class of fund you want, you
need to assess individual products. Performance is as good a place to start
as any, but you need to be aware that there are severe limitations with
straight past performance figures. Consistency is what you should be looking
for. Any manager can have a good month – or even year – on the back of
one or two lucky guesses. Producing consistently strong returns is an
indication – although by no means proof – that a manager is not relying
solely on good fortune.
But straight past performance figures alone will not tell
you which managers have achieved strong returns through big bets on a few
lucky stocks. For this, you need to look at risk-adjusted returns. One good
measure is a fund’s Sharpe ratio, which measures its annualised return in
excess of a risk-free rate (usually cash) and adjusts for volatility. The
Sharpe ratio indicates whether a fund only achieved high returns by making
desperate gambles: the higher the ratio, the better the fund’s historical
Also look at a fund’s alpha – the amount by which it
has outperformed its benchmark, taking into account its exposure to market
risk – and beta, its sensitivity to market movements. (These, along with
past performance figures, can be found at sites such as www.funds-sp.com and
Managers Can Make A
But don’t just look at performance data. Managers of
65% of funds in the UK have moved jobs in the past three years, so it’s
important you look at the personal record of the individual manager. There
is no point investing in a fund that has outperformed its peers if somebody
else achieved that out-performance.
Buying a fund that has had the same manager in place for
many years is often a good idea. But, equally, a start-up fund run by an
experienced manager who has demonstrated loyalty to previous employers can
be a potent mix. A desire to prove ones’ self, combined with a small
portfolio with holdings that can be changed relatively quickly, often
produces strong returns. By contrast, a manager with a portfolio of many
hundreds of millions of pounds can find it hard to take advantage of
short-term market opportunities.
Some firms impose a rigorous house style on their
managers; others have less stringent risk-control measures in place and
prefer to give individuals more freedom to indulge their stock-picking
skills. Either way, you need to understand what you’re investing in.
Also, remember that some managers’ styles will suit
certain market conditions. For example, a value manager who invests in more
defensive stocks should have outperformed a more aggressive growth manager
over the past three years. If the market rally continues, though, it is the
growth manager that should outperform, regardless of whether he or she is a
better stock-picker. Skill, then, is taken out of the equation. You want a
fund manager who can adapt to prevailing market conditions, or at least to
know how your fund will perform when markets shift.
This is why you must understand the investment process of
the manager. Only by knowing what the manager is trying to achieve can you
put his or her performance into context. This information can be a little
tricky to extract from a fund management house. All have fund fact sheets
posted on their websites, but invariably the stated investment objective is
generic to the point of being vacuous.
If you cannot find what you are looking for elsewhere on
a manager’s website, don’t be afraid to contact the management house
directly to get a properly defined objective or more specific performance
targets. The overall quality of fund manager websites varies enormously –
although many can be quite slow.
Finally, check that the charges on any potential fund are
not unduly out of line with its competitors. In terms of annual fees, you
should not be paying more than 1~1.5%. Anything less is a bonus.
Personal Directions: “All the world’s a stage”
By Christina Dodd,
founder and managing director of Asia Training Associates
Eleanor Roosevelt was a shy young girl who
was terrified at the thought of speaking in public. But with each passing
year, she grew in confidence and self-esteem. She once said, “No one can
make you feel inferior, unless you agree with it.”
These are valuable words to the ears of those of us who are
always at the front end of the audience, and I don’t mean in the front row,
but standing up there in the spotlight. Well, there may not always be a
spotlight, but there are always hundreds of eyes and hundreds of ears watching
every movement and listening to every word.
Today I am going to include in this article some pointers
for those of you who are “presenters” either in the public arena or in the
office meeting room, or at your local club. Presenting, for some, can be a
daunting task and there are a few key elements to the art of presentation that
we will look at.
First up let’s take a look at
The Voice. The voice is probably the most valuable tool of the
presenter. It carries most of the content that the audience takes away. One of
the oddities of speech is that we can easily tell others what is wrong with
their voice, e.g. too fast, too high, too soft, etc., but we have trouble
listening to and changing our own voices.
There are four main terms used for defining vocal
Volume: How loud the sound is. The goal is to be
heard without shouting. Good speakers lower their voice to draw the audience
in, and raise it to make a point.
Tone: The characteristics of a sound. An airplane
has a different sound than leaves being rustled by the wind. A voice that
carries fear can frighten the audience, while a voice that carries laughter
can get the audience to smile.
Pitch: How high or low a note is.
Pace: This is how long a sound lasts. Talking too
fast causes the words and syllables to be short, while talking slowly
lengthens them. Varying the pace helps to maintain the audience’s interest.
Colour: Both projection and tone variance can be
practiced by taking the line, “This new policy is going to be exciting”
and saying it first with surprise, then with irony, then with grief, and
finally with anger. The key is to over-act. Remember Shakespeare’s words,
“All the world’s a stage”; well, presentations are the opening night on
There are two good methods for improving your voice:
1. Listen to it! Practice listening to your voice while at
home, driving, walking, etc. Then when you are at work or in the company of
others, monitor your voice to see if you are using it how you want to.
2. To really listen to your voice, cup your right hand
around your right ear and gently pull the ear forward. Next, cup your left
hand around your mouth and direct the sound straight into your ear. This helps
you to really hear your voice as others hear it ... and it might be completely
different from the voice you thought it was! Now practice moderating your
Your body communicates different impressions to the
audience. People not only listen to you, they also watch you. Slouching tells
them you are indifferent or you do not care, even though you might care a
great deal! On the other hand, displaying good posture tells your audience
that you know what you are doing and you care deeply about it. Also, good
posture helps you to speak more clearly and effectively.
Throughout your presentation you should display:
Eye contact. This helps to regulate the flow of
communication. It signals interest in others and increase the speaker’s
credibility. Speakers who make eye contact open the flow of communication and
convey interest, concern, warmth and credibility.
Facial Expressions. Smiling is a powerful cue that
transmits happiness, friendliness, warmth and liking. Smiling is often
contagious and others will react favourably. They will be more comfortable
round you and will want to listen more.
Gestures. If you fail to gesture while speaking you
may be perceived as boring and stiff. A lively speaking style captures
attention, makes the material more interesting, and facilitates understanding.
Posture and body orientation. You communicate
numerous messages by the way you talk and move. Standing erect and leaning
forward communicates that you are approachable, receptive and friendly.
Interpersonal closeness results when you and your audience face each other.
Speaking with your back turned communicates disinterest.
Proximity. Cultural norms dictate a comfortable
distance for interaction with others. You should look for signals of
discomfort caused by invading other’s space.
Vary your voice. One of the major criticisms of
speakers is that they speak in a monotone voice. Listeners perceive this type
of speaker as boring and dull. People report that they learn less and lose
interest more quickly when listening to those who have not learned to modulate
The main enemy of a presenter is tension, which ruins the
voice, posture, and spontaneity. The voice becomes higher as the throat
tenses. Shoulders tighten up and limit flexibility while the legs start to
shake and cause unsteadiness. The presentation becomes “canned” as the
speaker locks in on the notes and starts to read directly from them.
Do not fight nerves, welcome them! Then you can get on
with the presentation instead of focusing on being nervous. Actors recognize
the value of nerves ... they add to the value of the performance. This is
because adrenaline starts to kick in. It’s a leftover from our
ancestor’s “fight or flight” syndrome. If you welcome nerves, then the
presentation becomes a challenge and you become better. If you let your
nerves take over, then you go into the flight mode by withdrawing from the
audience. Again welcome your nerves, recognize them, let them help you gain
that needed edge! When you feel tension and anxiety, remember that everyone
gets them, but the winners use them to their advantage, while the losers get
overwhelmed by them.
For more information on our Presentation Skills programs
contact me at Chris [email protected] ciates.com or visit our
website at www.atasiam.com
Until next time, have a great week!
The Doctor's Consultation: Kissing - a fatal attraction?
by Dr. Iain Corness
Eskimos kiss by rubbing noses they tell me, and I have to
accept this as true, as I have never been romantically involved with anyone in
sealskins. Thais kiss by placing the closed lips on the partner and sniffing.
This I do know is true, though initially I was worried that the reason for the
‘strange’ behaviour was that I might have had bad breath. Both of the
above methods of showing affection are not dangerous, but the Western version
of the kiss can (in rare cases) actually be fatal.
The disease in question was even known once as the
“Kissing Disease”, but these days is known by the more technical name of
Infectious Mononucleosis or the Mononucleosis syndrome. This is another of
those ailments sent to plague us (no pun intended) in which the infecting
agent is a virus, in this case the Epstein-Barr Virus, usually referred to as
EBV, since we medico’s like acronyms.
The EBV is an interesting little fellow and it is
everywhere. The latest figures I have to hand show that it infects more than
90 percent of the world’s population, but most people do not show any
symptoms from it. Puzzling! The most common presentation of illness from the
EBV was first described in the 1800’s, when it was called Glandular Fever.
Another puzzling fact is that those people who contact EBV
while children usually have no symptoms, but more than 60 percent of young
adults who meet the virus will go down with it. More puzzling! However, we are
at least smart enough to work out where the virus lives - and that’s in
saliva. Hence the connection between kissing and Infectious Mononucleosis. (I
was tempted to call it the French Connection, but not everyone is old enough
to remember the Gene Hackman movie!)
The clinical symptoms are sore throat, running a fever and
enlarged lymph glands all over. Most sufferers also have fatigue and muscle
aches as well, while about 10 percent have a rash to go with it. Other more
serious symptoms can include enlargement of the spleen and the liver, and
swelling in the throat that can be so severe the patient can end up in
intensive care. The virus can also run rampant and produce an infection in the
heart muscle and attack the lungs, but these are rare, yet very important,
While your doctor can have clinical suspicions about it,
the final proof comes in the blood tests which show abnormal cells and these
days there is also a specific test for EBV to clinch the diagnosis. The
problem is that the condition can be mimicked by a bacterial infection in the
throat, and sometimes you can get both EBV and the bacterium.
So what is the treatment? Unfortunately, like most viral
conditions there is no specific treatment just for EBV, but the treatment is
directed at getting over the complications of Infectious Mononucleosis.
Amoxycillin, the common antibiotic that you all self-medicate with, is
contraindicated in the treatment as it provokes the onset of the rash. 90
percent of those with Infectious Mononucleosis who take Amoxycillin end up
with the rash! See your doctor is the answer!
While the condition lasts between four to eight weeks, the
after effects and fatigue can last for some months. The virus is also still
present, so it is also a case of finding an Eskimo or Thai friend to kiss for
I’m in a terrible amount of trouble. You see, I finally succumbed to the
advances of a Thai woman, who I would have described as lovely and nice
until quite recently. We saw each other for a few months, traveled about a
bit, and generally had a comfortable time together. She never asked me to
support her ailing mother or the village buffalo, and I thought she also
enjoyed our relationship. Then I broke it off as it became a little bit
tiresome. Well, Hillary, that’s when it happened. She’s threatening to
go to my house and tell my wife! Can you imagine the nerve? What should I
do? What is it with these women? They make themselves so available and are
so charming, then try to destroy a person’s life!
Desperate and no longer,
Hot in Chiang Mai
Dear No Longer Hot in Chiang Mai,
As you say, the nerve of the little hussy! In this type of situation the
only form of defense is to attack, my Petal. Do not take this lying down -
in fact it has been this lying down routine of yours that brought all this
trouble on your poor innocent head to begin with. Retaliate! Threaten to
tell her pimp that she has been hiding her real income! You will be able
to find him by asking any of the tuk-tuk drivers in your area - they all
know each other. Of course it is difficult to be really sorry for you. You
brought all this on your head by starting the relationship and then sealed
your fate by breaking off the relationship. Silly Boy!
Hillary, ma petite,
A cryptic text message from wee Ying - ‘At sea, where bar?’ I can only
assume that she means ‘where choccy bar?’ Speaking of choccy, it seems
to me that the best way to ensure a safe and refrigerated delivery of your
Mars bar is to entrust the business to hoary old Santa. All you have to do
is suspend a nice clean pair of your fishnets either side of your flue and
you should be orgasmically surprised, come Xmas. Provided, of course, that
Santa is not misdirected to the address of your impersonator or cardboard
cutout who is putting on the agony and putting on the style in the
Mistersingha, cum Nit.
Dear Mistersingha, cum Nit,
After fixing up your punctuation, so that the letter was not rejected by
the typesetters, I am afraid I have to once again (yet again!) take you to
task. You promised me the chocolate bars (plural - that means more than
one, Petal) many months ago. Now you are trying to tell me that it
(singular - that means one) will be in my Xmas stockings (a pair means
two, Turtle Dove). Not good enough. One into two does not go. Elementary
mathematics that even you should be able to grasp. Finally to try and
blame the whole thing on some young sweet and innocent Thai ladies is just
too much. Consider this as my last demand note. If there are no chocolate
bars forthcoming you will hear from my solicitors. You may send to either
of my newspaper columns. Finally, while I am impressed that you are
attempting to show off your prowess in French, I am neither petite nor
A friend of mine is getting very tired of the ladies he meets in the bars,
who only seem to be interested in money. They stay with him for a few
weeks, and when he hasn’t coughed up the money for whatever they want,
they move on to find another sucker who will. He has asked me where can he
go to find a better class of lady in Thailand, or are they all like this.
He has heard about introduction agencies. Are they worthwhile? I can’t
help him because I’m not that way inclined, if you get my drift.
Helping a Mate
Dear Helping a Mate,
What is wrong with you men these days? Your friend claims the girls he
meets seem only interested in money - but what is the only thing your
friend seems interested in? Why does he have them living with him? To
learn how to eat som tum? How about meeting the girl of his dreams the
same way he would in his own country? Go to places where ‘nice’ girls
go. Join groups where ‘nice’ girls go. Meet eligible ladies at
parties, social gatherings, art exhibitions. He will find that these are
ladies who appreciate a gentleman, but will also not race off to bed on
the first date. As has been pointed out many times - you get what you pay
Every month there appears to be some sort of public holiday in Thailand as
well as the western ones. The office girl is forever doing something for
another “Buddha Day” and rolling up late. Have you any suggestions as
to how I can work out when the next holiday is due?
Have you ever thought of looking at a Thai calendar, my Petal? The
holidays are marked on them! I don’t know, you men appear to be getting
more dense by the day. Now send chocolates before I get annoyed!
Camera Class: Polarize for pictures with punch!
by Harry Flashman
While many keen photographers have a good stock of filters,
there is one that every photographer should own - and that is the polarizer.
There is no other filter that can make such a difference to your final pictures,
especially in the bright sun of Thailand. Once you become used to polarized
effects, you will want to leave the filter screwed on the end of your lenses
These filters are different from most others in the fact that
they are made up of two distinct elements. There is an outer ring that rotates
the outer “glass” relative to the inner element. This increases or reduces
the degree of polarization to allow the photographer an endless range of
polarized effects from one filter.
The principal behind these filters is to remove reflections,
and funnily enough it is reflections that take the colour out of colour
photography. Look at the surface of a swimming pool, for example - a shiny
white, non-transparent surface. Now look through a polarizing filter and you can
see right down to the tiles on the bottom of the pool. And the people frolicking
in the pool!
What you have to understand now is that these filters remove
reflections from any surface, not just water. The reason you cannot see through
some normally transparent windows is because of reflected images on the surface
of the glass. The reason some tree leaves appear to lose their colour is through
reflected light from the sky above.
One of the traps for young photographers is that because you
know the grass is green, you see it as green when you look through the camera
lens - even though it is not truly green, caused by reflections. Look again at
the scene in the viewfinder. The green grass is really a mixture of green and
silvery reflections, dark shadows and pale green shoots. Put the polarizing
filter on the lens and slowly rotate the outer ring. Suddenly the silvery
reflections disappear and become a deep, solid green colour. The grass is now
made up of green, dark green and pale green. This green will really leap out at
you and smack you fair between the eyes!
Your next beach scene when taken with a polarizer will really
amaze you. Again, slowly rotate the outer ring on the polarizer. Look critically
through the viewfinder and you will see the sky take on a much deeper colour to
highlight the white clouds. Keep turning that outer ring and the sea will change
to a deep blue to green luminescent hue. The end result is at your command. Try
taking the same shot this weekend, but with varying degrees of polarization and
see the differences in the final prints.
Another shot to try with or without polarization is
photographing a reflective, shiny object like your family car. Again, by looking
critically through the viewfinder you will see what happens when you remove the
reflections from the paintwork.
So, if the polarizer is such a wonderful bit of gear, why do
we not make it a standard piece of equipment on all cameras? Well, like
everything, there is a downside as well as the upside. In the case of the
polarizer it does its bit of brilliance at the expense of the amount of light
that gets through to the film. With most polarizing filters you will lose about
one and a half stops of light. What this means is that the shutter speed will be
at least twice as long to record the same scene, or that the aperture will have
to be twice the size. This means that you are more likely to get camera shake
effects and suffer from lack of depth of field when using the polarizer. Another
drawback is that the light drop to the film upsets your flash settings, so
compensation has to be made for night shots.
However, if you haven’t got one - get one this weekend and see the
full-bodied difference a polarizer can make!
Dr Byte's Computer Conundrums
Most of us lead lives awash in personal technology. Mobile / cell phones,
computers, note books, PDA’s, software, DVD, VCD, and of course the
My life is crowded with this stuff partly because of what
I do. But my love affair with things hi-tech began long before I bought my
first computer back in 1987.
I must have spent thousands of dollars on my love
affairs. Before the advent of cell phone technology, I was using CB UHF
radio to keep in touch with the kids at home. My first mobile phone was a
Motorola that weighed at least 100kg (joking - but it was very heavy). I
have spent hundreds to own and use stuff that was, in retrospect, ahead of
its time and mine, too. I wasted my money on it and, I confess, on a lot of
other needless, premature, or poorly conceived products.
Perhaps it’s because these are hard times and budgets
are spare, but I’m holding the tech in my life to a new standard. Last
week, I asked myself a question and now I’m asking you:
Which technologies and products do you use - really use -
to the extent that it would honestly pain you to be without them?
I have three items that meet this test. The first is my
generic brand notebook computer which I bought in Hong Kong 2 years ago. I
carry it everywhere and it allows me to keep in touch, schedule my day and
make presentations, read the newspapers from home, the UK, USA and of course
here in Chiang Mai.
The second is the Web and, by connection (no pun
intended), the fast ADSL connection which usually keeps us connected at
amazing speed. We all get tons of use out of the Web, thanks to our speedy,
usually on connection.
Third is my mobile phone, great great great grandson of
Motorola is now a Samsung which weighs about 5gms, runs for up to a week
without recharging and keeps me in touch with everyone wherever I happen to
I asked a friend in Australia and he commented:
“Yahoo’s instant-messaging service (aka YM). Never lose touch with
family and friends.” A client in Oregon USA says, “YM. I am always able
to get a hold of my team and Citec Asia when I need to.” By the way, Yahoo
Instant Messenger is free. A friend here in Chiang Mai says, “The Skype
technology which allows him to make really cheap phone calls to anyone in
the world from his PC is what he would miss most.”
Now that you’ve heard from some of my contacts and what
I think, I’d like to hear from you. Tell me which products or
technologies, in your experience, have stood the test of time and rigors of
real-life use. Remember, these things don’t have to be expensive, cutting
edge, or even all that high tech. You can submit your suggestions directly
to me at Chiangmai Mail.
With your help, I’ll compile a list of the 10 most
truly useful things in personal technology. Maybe it’ll help us all choose
and use technology more productively.
Now a reader writes:
Dear Dr Byte
Can I make my web searches more effective and efficient?
A. You might think my professional life involves
the endless downloading and evaluation of software. And it does up to a
point. But that’s only part of my job. I also have to research the
software I review and for that I use the Internet and search the web.
I used to just use Google for my research, but recently I
started using meta-search software instead. These tools run my keywords
through a number of different Web search engines, so I get a broader array
of results. Even more importantly, they organize and save my results,
something the average search engine isn’t particularly good at.
Here are the three best
meta-search tools I’ve found
Copernic Agent lets you customize its interface and
integrates well with Internet Explorer. It also allows you to search within
predefined categories, so you only query engines most likely to give you the
right results. (Free/Windows)
FirstStop WebSearch Standard Edition emphasizes speed,
allowing you to conduct searches in record time. This is great when I have
an impending deadline. FirstStop also does a particularly good job of
organizing and saving your results. (Free/Windows)
Watson doesn’t quite fit the meta-search profile, but
Mac users already have the Sherlock search tool built into Mac OS. Watson
lets you look for specific types of information, such as movie times, stock
quotes, and telephone numbers, without resorting to a Web browser.
So there you have it. By the way, try a search on Google
for these tools. If you have any tips that you’d like to share, or any
questions about your internet or pc experience, contact me: Dr Byte,
Corner: Roping in the raging bulls - yee haw!
Well, here I was thinking that SIZE DOESN’T MATTER,
when a 500 kilo bull ran into me and knocked that concept off its feet.
Having only sex on his mind and being huge definitely did matter, especially
when there’s no button to switch on the brain to bring back the sanity.
What I walked in to witness at the bovine sanctuary was complete madness,
complete lack of control, chaos. A cow was in heat and every male, human and
bovine was chasing her around the compound. Talk about getting caught in the
by a woman with a rope, BabaJay Boy Boy has sowed his last wild oats. After
losing his manhood this week, his fertility becomes a strong symbol for the
herd, having sired twelve calves in one year.
The poor cow was frantically trying to get away from the
hot pursuit. All the bulls were starting to fight. Staff ran off in all
directions. Of course the cow was pointed at as being the problem.
But the way I saw it, we had to deal with the real
problem, four head ramming raging bulls. The staff didn’t seem to
understand that they need not fear the bulls, the beasts only had eyes for
the female, or should I say nose? You just don’t want to get in their way,
that’s all. I told the staff just to run out there alongside them, throw a
lasso over one’s head and rope him onto a tree.
“Hurry up; it’s easy for heaven’s sake! What are
you hesitating for, go...! Show you? I have to show you? What? I don’t
Can you imagine Mrs. DoLittle had to get out there and
rope in those bulls herself! Well, I tell you after that experience I had a
different attitude about letting our desires run free. There is nothing
uglier than a raging bull. He has no morals. He will trample anyone who gets
in his way of getting what he wants, no matter what the cost!
Our bulls periodically lose their minds, which is a fact!
Well this time they lost the whole ball game!
Our ‘holy bulls’ who will be allowed to live out
their lives in full are extremely lucky. Had they stayed with farmers, they
would be slaughtered when still juvenile. Milk cows get their sons taken
away at birth. They go on the milk truck to be sold as BBQ meat along the
roadside in North Thailand. They die on their first or second day in the
world. The mother calls for the baby for many days. Such is the milk and
meat business. Cruelty beyond words! So lucky our animals are never to have
to face the trauma of slaughter.
But, order we must have and so the boys must get
neutered! The vet will come and knock them out with a bovine sleep cocktail.
Whilst they’re dreaming about the swaying grasslands, the villagers will
be frying sweet bread! Yes, our boys may become high-pitched bellowers. I
hope this doesn’t attract any ‘koi toey’ bulls from the neighborhood.
We have enough problems as it is!
The morale of this story is: If you end up with ‘tails’ - flip the