The Doctor's Consultation: Is cancer a ‘relative’ risk?
by Dr. Iain Corness
We have known for many years that certain diseases run in
families. This includes diabetes and asthma for example. We have also known
that certain types of cancer seem to run in families, with breast cancer in
women being the one that has probably been best documented, with the gene
responsible having been identified.
In an attempt to get further towards the truth, a study was
carried out based in Iceland, where scientists have access to unique family
tree data covering the whole population, and from the 27 types of cancers
studied, 16 appeared to show the inheritance factor, with seven of these
showing a very strong connection.
The research was set up to establish how often cancers
occurred in first to fifth degree relatives of about 32,000 cancer patients
over the past 50 years. The 27 cancers studied included many of the most
common, such as lung, breast, prostate, colon and skin.
In addition, the incidence and types of cancers suffered by
the partners of cancer patients were also noted. These cancers included
stomach, lung and colon cancers and were seen more frequently in the partners
of patients, suggesting the involvement of shared lifestyle and environmental
factors, as inheritance was not a factor in this group.
Study leader Kari Stefansson, chief executive of the drug
company deCODE Genetics in Reykjavik, said, “Our findings indicate that
genetic factors contribute to the risk of specific cancers, but also that
certain types of cancer can be looked upon collectively as broad, complex
phenotypes (diseases with distinct characteristics).
“The next step in this work is to isolate the key genes
contributing to the common forms of the disease and to use this information to
develop better medicine. At the same time it is crucial to emphasize that
lifestyle and environmental factors play a very significant role in the
development of cancer and are things we may all be able to do something about
The seven cancers with the highest increased familial
occurrence both in close and distant relatives were breast, prostate, stomach,
lung, colon, kidney and bladder cancers, the researchers reported in the
on-line journal PloS Medicine.
Cancers at certain sites of the body also showed a familial
association with other cancers. For example, relatives of people with stomach,
colon, rectal or womb cancer were more likely to develop any one of these
So that’s the bad news, what’s the good news? Well the
good news is that just because a close relative had cancer does not mean to
say that you will definitely get it too. Remember that what was looked at
here, in the study of 32,000 cancer patients, were relative numbers. The
association with environmental factors also means that there are more factors
at work than just heredity. And environmental factors are usually under your
control. These are factors such as smoking, for example. Yes, another dig at
smoking, the most easily corrected environmental cancer producing factor in
So let’s imagine that a close relative does come up with
one of the seven most reported in families, those of breast, prostate,
stomach, lung, colon, kidney and bladder, what do you do now? Throw in the
towel? Write your will? Spend all your money this evening? Hopefully none of
those! There are screening tests and examinations that can be done to see if
you have any of those conditions. Screening tests, X-Rays, blood tests, stool
examinations, endoscopies and suchlike.
Having cancer is not the end of the world these days, and
just having a relative with cancer is definitely not a death sentence!
I’ve often had the urge to write in. But after reading yet another sad
reader’s submission I really couldn’t resist this time. I’m
referring to “Tired Tim” who wrote for advice about his sulky
Why was she sulky, you ask? Because Tim fancies a drink
with the boys a couple of nights week. He then relates that he gives her
30,000 baht a month. Well as they say, “every village has one”.
Unless your girlfriend has a masters degree and looks
like Miss World I’d suggest you’re overpaying her. This, not your
nights out is to blame. It has turned her into a spoiled brat who believes
you are “stoopid”. My suggestion to you and all the other poor
misguided fools is to send her back to the bar where she was found.
Earning 30,000 baht a month under numerous sweaty customers is a lot
harder. Sorry to say but I am constantly amazed at the amount of money
given to girlfriends. Read the local press and see what the going rate for
monthly employment is. A hard working craftsman would be over the moon
with 8,000. A well educated office worker would be happy with 10,000 so
why does an ignorant, sulky, provincial bumpkin need three times that
amount. Get yourself out and about you can find pleasant friendly local
girls who don’t work in bars only too happy to have a Farang boyfriend,
and what’s more, they’ll have a job and wages too. Farang men stop
selling yourselves short and wasting your money. No wonder they think
we’re mad!! Start thinking.
Are you a bean counter by profession? Whilst your argument is very well
reasoned and makes sound financial sense, it ignores one very human factor
- emotion. Farang men will always form an attachment somewhere, but not
necessarily in the most honest environments. However, being a
‘girlfriend’ is not a profession, nor should time spent with a partner
be considered a commodity to be traded for a monthly ‘salary’. Love
for sale is never ‘love’ and hence the high divorce rates in certain
sections of the community. I agree with you wholeheartedly about the
pleasant, friendly local girls, but the ease of getting to know these
paragons of virtue, compared to the ladies of the night, means that they
tend to be overlooked. I still believe it is up to Tired Tim to work out
finances with his lady, rather than you or I suggesting what the monthly
stipend should be. Never-the-less, you do sound like an honest, thinking
man, my Petal. Just up the ante a little bit more and Hillary could be
persuaded to give up tapping away on the keyboard.
My girlfriend speaks quite good English, but I can find it difficult
to understand her true meaning and we end up having an argument. The other
day she seemed worried and said “I want stay by myself” and I thought
she wanted to leave. I asked her why, as everything seemed to be OK
before, but she just started to get mad at me for continuing to ask her
what was wrong. The next day, when she hadn’t left I worked out that
what she wanted to say was that because she was trying to work out a
personal problem, she wanted to be “alone” for a while. I try to
understand, but it is a problem. Have you any advice for this
communication problem we are having?
Dear Communications Conrad,
In any relationship, clear and open communication is most important. When
the two people come from different cultures and have different native
languages, then it becomes even more likely that confusion will occur.
Your girlfriend is trying her best to communicate with you in a foreign
language, but I note you do not say whether you can communicate in Thai,
her language. If there are times of confusion, you should just say “mai
kowjai” and ask her to put it another way. Finally, try not to hang on
the literal meaning of every word - try and get the overall meaning or
emotion. And get some Thai lessons too!
With all the horrible tales you hear about the foreigners being ripped off
by the girls in Thailand, have you any suggestions about how you tell a
“good” Thai girl from a “bad” Thai girl? There must be some way.
Before any more of us get taken to the cleaners, let us into the secret
Hillary. I’m from London and I thought I was street smart. The
motorcycle shops must just love us, and the gold shops too. Please, before
it’s too late!
Take your time. Hasten Jason will only get you in trouble in double quick
time. Have you been hurt already, my Petal? All you have to do is follow
the “rules” that you would in your own country. When looking for a
soul mate would you go to the local bar? Finding “good” girls as you
call them is difficult, but you generally do not find them in bars. They
work in offices, hospitals, shops, optometrists, architects rooms, tourist
hotels - are you listening to me, Jason! Finally, if all else fails, here
is Hillary’s tip for the selection of “good” girls. Check the legs
first - good girls wear pantyhose. There you are, Jason, it’s easy!
Camera Class: Wat to photograph?
by Harry Flashman
Sometimes you can become so used to what is around us, that
you don’t see it any more. Our Wats (temples) are a classic example. We have
seen so many, we don’t see them any more, yet the first time tourists to
Thailand go mad when they see the temples. Hundreds of rolls of film are shot,
because Thailand is actually a photographer’s paradise. The ambient light
levels are strong, shadows are strong and images are also strong if you use
light and shadow to your advantage. The ideal venue to use all these aspects is
in your local Wat.
We all forget that we are living in a country that other
people save up for 11 months just to get here for two or three weeks!
So here is how to take that great Wat shot - only it isn’t
one shot. It is impossible to show a Wat with one snap. It requires a series.
One of the reasons for this is the fact that a Wat is a microcosm of Thai
society. People eat there, live there, learn there and go there after they die.
So really you are trying to show not only the grandeur of the architecture, but
the fact that the Wat has its own life going on within its boundaries. It is the
centre of all village life.
Here is how I would approach the subject, and remember we are
looking for production quality shots here. The preparation is to go there the
day before your shooting day to see how the sun shines on the buildings. To get
the textures and colours you need the sun striking the walls at an angle. Full
shade or full sun is not the way. It’s back to using light and shadow to show
form. You will have to note what are the best times of day to record the various
architectural details. Also be prepared to use a close up shot or two to
highlight some of the small details. By the way, always remember that a Wat is a
place of religious worship and significance, so do take your shoes off and be
Wats are inhabited by much more than the saffron robed monks.
There are teachers, nuns, novitiates, school children, street vendors and even
tourists. A very mixed bag. Try to take shots to show just why these people are
there in the Wat and its compound. This is where a “long lens” (135 mm
upwards) can be a help. You can get the image you want without having to intrude
into the person’s personal space. However, remember that if there is any doubt
as to whether your subject would really want that photo taken - then ask
permission first. It is my experience that the vast majority of people will
happily respond positively to your request. Even when there is no common
language, a smile and a wave of the camera in their direction and an “OK?”
is generally all that is necessary.
Taking pictures inside a Wat is not as easy as the exterior
shots. The light levels are very low and there is often the feeling that you are
intruding in someone else’s religious practices. Taking a flash photograph
really is an intrusion in my view. This is where the tripod is great. Set the
camera up on the tripod, compose the shot, set it on Time Exposure and quietly
get that shot of a lifetime. You will probably need around 5-10 seconds at f5.6,
but that is just a guide and you should experiment. If you set the camera on
Auto mode and turn off the flash you will get better results.
By now you should have taken almost one complete roll of film on your local
Wat. Verticals, horizontals, close-ups and wide angle shots. Do not be afraid to
shoot film. It is the only way to improve and the only way to get great shots.
Film is the cheapest thing in photography, always remember that. Just avoid
taking the ‘same’ shot four times - one vertical and one horizontal for each
subject, but that is all.
Dr Byte's Computer Conundrums
by Dr Byte, Citec Asia
In the last edition, I promised some more questions and
answers. Don’t forget, if you’re connecting to the internet, you must have
three applications installed on your PC or face the sad consequences. Anti-Virus
is no longer enough, and you also need to have something to sweep for Spyware
(or Malware as it’s sometimes called), and a Firewall. I will be over-viewing
some of what’s on offer for the next column so watch out to see what’s new,
what’s old and what works.
Ric, near Wat Umong asks: I am a senior (70 now) and
still new to computers and all their quirks. When I bought my computer last year
it had antivirus software installed. I believe this is now out of date. I have
Windows XP and Outlook Express and have just switched to home ADSL and the
technician installed another Anti-Virus. Do I need anything extra and what else
should I do to keep the nasties at bay?
Answer: With new viruses and variations discovered every
day it is essential antivirus programs get the latest data so they can recognise
new threats. If you’re living in a condo, your condo probably organised for a
shared ADSL connection for all the units and probably insisted on you having
Norton Anti-Virus (which their technician would have installed if you didn’t
I genuinely doubt that the condo would have purchased 40 or
50 Norton Anti-Virus licences for their condo units, and so you probably have an
unlicensed version. I don’t recommend Norton Anti-virus or McAfee for that
matter, but do recommend that you install at least three applications. 1:
Anti-Virus and I recommend AVG which is free from the Grisoft Company, UK. 2:
Ad-Aware to scan for spyware, trojans and malware and 3: A Firewall (note that
the XP Firewall is very basic protection but something like Zone Alarm (also
free) provides serious protection for both incoming and outgoing activities).
Set up AVG to scan your computer daily and schedule the free
update from AVG at least twice a week. Check for an Ad-Aware update weekly and
scan your computer immediately after. These activities can take time, so time
them for night time or weekend when you don’t need your computer. If you’re
not sure how to find and install these applications, talk to one of the
professional computer maintenance companies here in Chiang Mai. These include IS
Com / Media Magic (now located in the new Com City), Chi Chang in Chiang Mai
Land Road and Citec Asia in the old Australian Consulate in Sirimankalajarn
Road. IS Com staff and Citec Asia staff will help you in English.
Monica of Sankhampaeng writes: I am running Windows XP
Home Edition. When I attempt to turn off my computer it runs through the
shutdown process but always reboots - I have to wait until the moment it
restarts before I can switch it off as reboot recommences. Can you help?
Answer: Windows XP is, by default, set to restart the
computer when it stops responding. In your case, it seems that it stops
responding rather inconveniently during the shutdown process. Microsoft has a
support article describing this. However, by far the most helpful information on
this problem comes from James A. Eshelman, whose Windows XP Shutdown and Restart
troubleshooter lists several prime suspects for the problem, including third
party CD programs, power management and USB connections. Look at:
Again, if your not a techie, discuss the problem with one of
the professional computer companies listed in the previous answer.
In the next column I will be looking at Spyware, Anti-Virus
and Firewall applications and awarding them with ratings based on cost,
usability, effectiveness and availability. Don’t forget to keep your preferred
anti-virus and spysweepers up to date. Do a full hard disc scan and sweep at
least once a week. Don’t open e-mails with funny attachments if your not
expecting them and last but not least, make sure your firewall is on. Dr Byte
appears in Chiangmai Mail every 2 weeks and if you have any questions or
suggestions you would like to make, you can contact me at Dr Byte, Chiangmai
Money Matters: Wall Street’s Crystal Ball Reveals Overcast in 2005
MBMG International Ltd.
chief investment strategist
S&P 500: 1300;
“We started getting more positive on the market in
September,” as a number of conditions continued to improve, says Mr.
Levkovich. Principally, he says, companies’ huge wads of cash give them
power to “take things into their own hands.” The question is whether
companies will use that cash to hire. “We’re seeing all the right
signals,” says Mr. Levkovich. “But there’s no guarantee. It won’t be
phenomenal. Companies have learned to be more productive with fewer
workers.” Mr. Levkovich recommends investors put 60% of their funds in
equities, 35% in bonds and 5% in cash. He likes farm-related stocks,
consumer staples and biotechnology stocks. Technology stocks may turn around
some time in 2005, he says, but he’s not sure when. The biggest risk to
the economy? Protectionism, he says, which “would cause unhealthy
MBMG is glad that corporate America is run by individuals
a lot more savvy than Mr. Levkovich – the CEOs aren’t hiring and won’t
be. The biggest risk to the economy in our view is if anybody takes Mr.
Levkovich’s Fantasy Island musings seriously and the corporates spend all
their cash making the bubble bigger for another year. This would have the
effect of proving Abbey Joseph Cohen right about 2005 by deferring all the
problems until next year.
S&P 500: 1275;
10-year yield: 5%
Real GDP: 3.5%
“The stock market outlook for 2005 is good,” writes
Mr. Green. But not great. His S&P forecast is among the lower end of the
10 market watchers we surveyed. Still, 2005 should be a solid year for
profits, he says. Economic growth should “continue at a fast pace” in
2005, enough to produce 10% earnings growth for the year. The biggest
obstacle to a strong 2005 is a sharp rise in interest rates, he cautions, so
keep your eye on the 10-year note, which remained quiet throughout 2004 even
as the fed-funds rate increased by 1.25%.
A Sharp rise in the 10-year note yield could cause the
P/E (price-to-earnings ratio) to contract more than expected if investors
see that as likely to curtail the economy and earnings growth into 2006,”
writes Mr. Green. And that might cause a spike in – you guessed it –
10% earnings growth? 10% earnings growth? 10% earnings
growth? – MBMG is speechless. HSBC expects that GDP growth currently
running at 4% will average 2% for the year. 4 now, 2 for the year average,
what does that imply by the year end, and what, in turn does that imply for
earnings growth? 10% apparently if you use the special briefing.com
Bank of America Securities
Thomas McManus, chief investment strategist
S&P 500: 1200
Mr. McManus, one of the few 2005 bears surveyed should
get a more sympathetic ride from MBMG. He thinks stocks have gotten too
pricey relative to earnings. That makes them a risky bet heading into a year
that will likely see rising interest rates, he says. Today’s stock
valuations “overlook the significant rise in inflation expectations,”
writes Mr. McManus. However he adds, “Inflation isn’t going to creep –
it’s going to jump right in our faces,” he says, since “we’re going
to see a plethora of rising prices” in the first quarter of the year.
Investors have become overconfident, says Mr. McManus,
and are ignoring a number of risks. Part of that overconfidence stems from
the fact that P/E ratios, while high by some accounts, are still well off
their historic highs. The operating P/E ratio of the S&P 500 companies
currently is at 21.02, compared with 46.05 in December 2001. But as
inflation ramps up, companies will have trouble maintaining their profit
margin, he says, and that could hurt P/Es.
MBMG thinks that overconfident doesn’t even begin to
cover the kind of thinking already described by some analysts. Mr. McManus
fails to spot, however, that inflation and higher interest rates will both
simply be a spike – the real question being whether or not they peak
before or after the end of 2005.
Phil Roth, chief technical market analyst
S&P 500: “If you put a gun to my head, I’d say it’s down.”
Long-term Treasuries have failed to price in the real
rate of inflation, says Mr. Roth, due to a prevailing view (among the bond
markets BUT not the analysts here) that the U.S. economy has been soft.
“People have constantly distrusted the economic expansion and believed
that there was no inflation,” he says. “But there are strong signs that
inflation is picking up.”
He says that “we’ve almost had a miracle in the bond
market this year” and that “bonds are much more mis-priced than
stocks.” That will be the story for 2005. “Rising long-term interest
rates,” he says, could “choke off the market.”
Want one more reason to be careful this year? It’s the
Year of the Rooster, according to the Chinese calendar. And Mr. Roth – a
technical strategist on Wall Street – says Years of the Rooster are
usually Years of the Bear as well. If Mr. Roth is right, a number of the
strategists we spoke with may have to eat some crow by the end of 2005.
MBMG’s head is shaking in disbelief – even the bears are growling
utter nonsense. Inflation is a short term threat. Recessionary
disinflation/deflation now seem utterly unavoidable – the question being
whether they will occur in 2005 or the following year. Still I guess it’s
better to draw the right conclusions from looking at the data wrongly like
Mr. Roth than to draw the wrong conclusions despite having the facts staring
you in the face like the other commentators did.
The above data and research was compiled from sources
believed to be reliable. However, neither MBMG International Ltd nor its
officers can accept any liability for any errors or omissions in the above
article nor bear any responsibility for any losses achieved as a result of
any actions taken or not taken as a consequence of reading the above
article. For more information please contact Alan Hall on
Life in the Laugh Lane: Once Upon a Menu: Part Two
by Scott Jones
My Vietnamese bus has stopped to drink fuel while we eat
lunch. I’m routinely pestered by the world’s smallest and most persistent
lottery ticket salesmen, apparently the younger brother of the world’s
youngest waitress. Declining to buy a ticket, I distract him with his photo on
my digital camera. His life’s mission is quickly altered. Now he really,
really wants me to take a picture of his sister and she really, really
doesn’t want me to. There’s way too much activity while I’m trying to
clandestinely copy the menu. You may have read the Seafood and Chicken sections
in last week’s column. Here are the rest of my favourites, all unedited and
have one head and one chest with Adhesive Sauce in between.
In the “Vegetable” section (plus some meat): GRILLED
AUBERGINE WITH ONION GREASE (Translation: Aubergine = Eggplant; Onion = Onion;
Grease = Grease). BOILED BEAN (Only one, but maybe it’s very large). FRIEND
FIELD CABBAGE W/PURE OIL (Why not eat your friends? If you don’t like Pure
Oil, they can use Onion Grease). CHOP SUEY WITH (Oh, consider the options with
this option!) CHICKEN PAW AND PULLING OUT BONE (Ouch! Stop it! Don’t say
that! Chicken paw? Did Rover have an affair with a Henrietta?) WITH BEEF
SQUEEZING THOROUGHLY (What was the cow squeezing thoroughly? How long ago? Did
it finally come out?) WITH BEEF HALF-COOKED (Half-cooked fish could be sushi.
Half-cooked cow could be death). WITH LOTOS ROOSTOCKO SHIMP MEAT (Whatever).
In the “Specialties” section, for folks who like food
that sticks to the ribs and flies through the intestines: GRILLED CUPINE WITH
ADHESIVE SAUCE (What’s a cupine? Female cupid? Poor little thing). GRILLED
WIND PIG WITH FIVE TASTES (“I’ll take all five tastes and four more
tongues”). GRILLED PIG MAMA WITH ADHESIVE SAUCE OR FIVE TASTES (Don’t even
try to translate this into English! Do we get Mama’s kids as appetizers?)
GRILLED DEER OR GOAT WITH ADHESIVE SAUCE (If you’re afraid of eating Mama,
try something vaguely familiar). GRILLED GOAT IN DODGE STYLE (This may be the
goat that hit the grill of a truck yesterday). SAUTED PIG CHEST WITH
SALT/PEPPER (“I’ll have one chest, hold the lungs, and a tall glass of
bicarbonate of soda). BEEF TEAK W/FRIED POTATO (Cow from a teak barn? Teak
board with a marrow marinade?) BRITTLE FRIED INTESTINE SALAD (From whence have
the intestines come? Wind Pig, Lotos Roostocko or the elusive Cupine?) GRILLED
BEEF WITH WEDDING CAKE (I have no idea. No need for a special occasion, you can
just have this for lunch).
And in the Dessert section, if you didn’t dare order the Grilled Beef With
Wedding Cake: CHARRED RICE IN FRYING WITH GINGSEN (The rice is already ruined
so let’s try frying and spicing it). CHARRED RICE FROM 4 DIRECTION (Maybe
they get burned rice from all over the neighborhood?) CHARRED RICE WITH FRIED
CHEST (Pig Mama chest? Goat? A farmer trying to save a burning rice paddy?)
CHARRED RICE WITH ONION GREASE (Hmm. This is exactly what I throw out from the
pans after dinner is over). I stole some Adhesive Sauce but I can’t get it
out of the bottle.