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The Doctor's Consultation

Agony Column

Camera Class by Snapshot

Money Matters

Arts - Entertainment - Lifestyles

Films on DVD for Rental in Chiang Mai

Your Health & Happiness

The Doctor's Consultation:  by Dr. Iain Corness

SuperSight Surgery club sees a bright future

(I have previously mentioned SuperSight Surgery, but having heard that a “fan club” for the procedure has begun, I thought it worthwhile to feature it again.)
Are you over 50 and using spectacles to read this article? Do you hate your reading glasses? If so, keep them on and keep reading, help may be at hand!
Unfortunately, the need for reading glasses is a natural progression of aging. The first signs are the fact that you have to hold this newspaper further away to be able to read it, and you also find that you need a good light to be able to see the words clearly. Eventually you run out of arms, and you succumb and buy reading glasses. This means that you have become a slave to your spectacles! Eventually your nose gets funny indentations either side of the bridge, where the spectacles settle.
It is important that you understand just why this happens. As you get older, all the ‘elastic’ tissues in your body become less pliable. Knees, lower back, fingers, neck, the list is endless. However, you have to add to that list, the lens in your eye.
The fiddly little lens, supplied at birth as a standard feature, does not have a fixed focus, but you can make it focus close up (to read) and then also focus at a distance, such as when you are following your golf ball. The way you do this is by ‘bending’ the lens to be able to focus on near objects. Unfortunately, as the lens becomes less pliable, the muscles in your eye become unable to bend the stiffening lens enough to produce the near point focus. The near point moves further away, until you have run out of arms. We medico’s call this condition ‘Presbyopia’.
Unfortunately there is yet another result of aging that occurs in the lens of the eye. This is a gradual cloudiness which lowers the visual acuity, and eventually brings on blindness. Welcome to the wonderful world of white sticks and Labradors. According to the World Health Organization, currently between 12 and 15 million people are estimated to be blind from cataracts, and by the year 2020, this will be 54 million people.
The initial treatment was by removal of the now optically inefficient natural lens, and attempting to return some usable vision through the introduction of very thick and heavy spectacles placed before the eyes. These glasses looked as if they were made from the bottom of Coca-Cola bottles (registered trade mark and all), and were just as heavy. The patient could see again, but reading required even thicker lenses.
However, in 1949, a Dr. Harold Ridley noticed that pieces of shattered Perspex after a penetrating eye injury in aircraft crashes did not produce a reaction within the eye. This was the first step towards production of the Intra-Ocular lenses (now referred to as IOL’s as we medico’s love acronyms). It became possible for us to replace the cloudy hard lens with a clear lens. The patients could see again, but did need reading glasses, as the lens had a fixed focus.
So we come to the latest development in IOL’s. The focusable lens, under the control of the patient’s own intra-ocular muscles. With these lenses you can read your golf scorecard with your near vision, focus on the ball on the tee with your intermediate vision and then using your distance vision watch it gently arcing into the water hazard. (These new IOL’s can improve your sight, but not your golf, I am afraid.)
We also have Dr. Somchai Trakoolshokesatian who practices in Thailand, down on the coast at the Bangkok Hospital Pattaya. He is one of the world leaders in inserting these new lenses. The results have been so outstanding that medical ‘tours’ are coming to this country to have this operation. Word of mouth has been bringing people to Thailand for the operation that can return their sight to what it was when they were 20 years old.
SuperSight Surgery works best in what are technically known as hyeropic presbyopes, meaning those individuals who are farsighted and have lost the optimal close up focusing ability of their eye’s natural lens. Presbyopes typically wear glasses for close-up work or reading; however, because each individual’s situation is different, a consultation with Dr. Somchai is the only way to definitely determine if you are a good candidate for the procedure.
So what does it cost? The current fees for the procedure are around 200,000 baht, which include surgery fees, the special lenses, implantation for both eyes and medicines on the day of surgery and one night stay in hospital.
Dr. Somchai can be contacted through his website

Heart to Heart  with Hillary

Dear Hillary,
I think we would all want to throw rocks at these Thai people if the kids were not so cute, and the women were not so beautiful and accessable (sic) by the use of a little money. It’s a finely formed, impressive looking package to bump into, but let’s face it, there isn’t much else behind it, and if you look for more, you get into trouble; and that’s just the thing. Why bother? Enjoy it for what it is. Thailand’s economy is fuelled by the sale of bodies for sex, and although they are looked down upon, prostitutes are the reason for Thailand’s improving economic status. Is this the dawning of the age of Aquarius? The rising economic power generated by mass interest in sex with Asian women? Surely all that Asian porno must have it’s (sic) effect on the collective psyche and libido of the American male, or man from anywhere outside Asia. The hordes of men with money who go to have sex in Asian countries and become expats (perhaps business owners, or English teachers, if they don’t have much money, or have lost it) creates jobs, puts food on tables, and sends children to school. The funny thing is, what will be the use for English, if 10 years from now, all of us are living in a bigger country called China? Hillary, are you one of these strange, sort-after (sic) creatures of orgasmic delight?
Mr Enjoy
Dear Mr. Enjoy,
I was very tempted to bin your letter, but finally decided that I should publish it, to show that there is still such sex dominated thinking rampant (a good word for you it sounds) in non-Thais and westerners in particular. You mentioned “Asian porno” and its apparent effect on the American male, which is interesting considering that the center of pornography is either America or Europe, depending upon who you read or dribble over.
You also postulate that “prostitutes are the reason for Thailand’s improving economic status.” What absolute rubbish, my Petal! This would appear to fly in the face of reality. Thailand’s economic status is not really improving, quite the reverse if financial statistics are anything to go by, though I doubt that you study the finance pages, since you would rather use bar fines as an economic index. Even if I am incorrect (and I thought I was once, but I found I was mistaken) when foreigners are spending more than 240 million baht in one day at the Thailand Stock Exchange, that far exceeds your bar fine economic index.
I presume that you are from America, and apparently from some part of that nation that does not have prostitution. Please let me know which state that is, as none of my friends know it. America outlawed prostitution many years ago, and that failed, just as the prohibition era failed.
As far as me being a “sort-after creature of orgasmic delight,” yes, I suppose I am, but the phrase you were trying to find is “sought-after”. Simple rule - if you can’t spell a word, then don’t use it. Such as “accessible” not “accessable”. And learn when to use “it’s” and “its”. That’s the boy. I leave it to others to debate your topic.
Dear Hillary,
I come over to Thailand once a year and every year it is the same. Fun, fun, fun. By the end of my three week vacation I need the fourth week to recover. What I am wondering, is how do the guys who live in Thailand keep up the pace? Is it blue diamonds or what? I’m only 35 and I see some much older blokes than me who seem to be regulars in some of the bars.
Peter the Pacemaker
Dear Peter the Pacemaker,
Have you ever heard about the kid in the candy store? That’s you, my Petal. The guys who live here perhaps do resort to the blue diamonds for their viagorous exercises, but many of the older chaps you see in the bars who are regulars have got through the candy shop stage. But as you say, you are only 35, so enjoy life, Peter who is pacing himself. The bars will still be here on your next holiday.
Dear Hillary,
My girlfriend and I have a good relationship except for the fact she keeps losing the keys and mobile phone. This is very annoying, how can I stop her doing this?
Dear Annoyed
Have you ever considered the fact that your girlfriend is losing keys and telephones as a subconscious way of expressing her lack of satisfaction with the relationship or simply as a device to annoy you? One quick fix is to either don’t let her see that it annoys you or simply don’t speak to her for days every time she loses things. The best way though is to “Give her the monkey and let her feed it.” Which is a Thai expression for allowing her to take the consequence of her own actions. Do not let her have or use your mobile phone ever, keep a spare set of keys for you, but never unlock the apartment for her, and never give her another set after she has lost one. If this is too tedious, maybe losing this girlfriend would be less frustrating than her losing the keys.

Camera Class:  by Harry Flashman

Why you should leave your lenses on f5.6

I have three lenses in my camera bag. A 24 mm, a 50 mm and a 135 mm. Pick any one out of the bag and you will most likely find that it is set on f5.6. Why?
There are many reasons, including laziness, extreme familiarity with my camera and equipment, and the fact that I take more ‘people’ shots than countryside landscapes. Boiling all this down, I am generally more interested in shooting the subject than I am in the background.
How many times when you are taking a photograph do you actually look at the background? If you are honest, then the vast majority of you will reply, “Never.” Unfortunately, the wrong background, fussy, cluttered or “jarring” is a sure-fire way to spoil what could have been a great picture.
In your haste and eagerness to make the subject the “hero” you forget to look at the background, being so engrossed in making the subject in the foreground look good. However, there are many photographic techniques that can be used to get rid of backgrounds completely.
Take a look at the two photographs with this week’s article. The first shot shows a young girl sitting in a row of chairs, with an extremely “busy’ and distracting background. On the other hand, the second shot shows the same girl sitting on the same row of chairs, but the background has degenerated into a blur of shapes. There is only one heroine in this shot - the girl. The fact that these shots were taken less than 30 seconds apart, by the same photographer, using the same camera, shows that the control over the background is possible. It is not hit or miss.
One of the best techniques to master is the one that allows you to control the Depth of Field in any photograph. This relates totally to f stops and backgrounds! By the way, Depth of Field is merely the “sharp” area between the foreground and the background in any photograph. To isolate your subject in a snapshot you should try and get the sharpness region to begin just before your subject and end just behind the subject, your “hero”. Here’s how to do this.
For this technique, you do need a camera that allows you to select the Aperture, otherwise called the f stop. Look at the ring of numbers around your lens and you will see that they go from about 2.8 through to 22. You don’t even need to know what those numbers mean, but all you have to remember is that the smaller the number, the shorter the Depth of Field, and conversely, the bigger the number, the deeper the Depth of Field.
When you want to take a portrait, focus on the eyes and set a wide aperture - generally around f4-5.6 is satisfactory. Using a standard lens and shooting about 2 metres from the subject, you will get a Depth of Field that will extend from around 200 mm in front to 400 mm behind. Anything further away will be gloriously out of focus, isolating your portrait subject from any distracting background, just like the second photograph here.
So that is the reason that my lenses sit on f5.6. I can shoot in a hurry and not have to think about the backgrounds at all. I do know this is a lazy way, and every so often I can get caught out, so after the first couple of grab shots I do check the aperture ring! And so should you!

Money Matters:  Graham Macdonald MBMG International Ltd.

Why? Part 1

Why are so many commentators so positive about the global outlook when there are so many reasons to be negative?
1) It’s their job - in the main equity analysts can only sell their products by forecasting some level of growth in equity values. Their most cautious statements still imply that buying and holding equities remains a good idea. This isn’t always the case but for equity analysts to admit that would be like turkeys voting for an early Xmas.
2) Liquidity has been the dominant force recently - The global economy ended 2006 on a strong note recording one of the strongest quarterly gains of the expansion. The impressive gains in final demand (principally consumer spending and capex) stemmed from the US policy of using liquidity to finance growth. This policy has been echoed in many other markets. However, history and common sense both dictate that it’s impossible to maintain ever higher liquidity. At some point a credit crunch follows and brings down the curtain on a high growth economy powered by leveraged liquidity.
3) Arrogance - in all walks of life most people think that with the lessons of history we’re all smarter and more sophisticated now. In many areas that may be true. However, in economics we’re actually choosing to ignore the lessons of the past. The boom of the late 1990s saw a vast amount of egg on the faces of the “it’s different this time” crowd and yet the same mantra is heard every time you turn on CNBC. Some things do change but the fundamental facts that if you borrow money you have to pay it back and the more that you borrow the more you have to pay back remain constant. Debt and repayment are big factors in creating expansion and decline respectively. That’s why economies remain cyclical and why history’s pointers that we’re headed for a significant downturn can’t be ignored. Some things aren’t different this time - some things never change.
Volatility is definitely the big thing at the moment with markets being “all over the shop” in the last few weeks. From big up days to key reversal down days, being in cash would have saved you a lot of anxiety and little lost opportunity cost since late February. Gavekal are fantastic ‘out of the box’ thinkers and whilst correctly bullish for the past few years, their recent research piece entitled “Enough Dynamite to go fishing” made very interesting reading. “While there are over a million earthquakes per year around the world, most are too small to be felt. According to the Centre for Earthquake Research and Information at the University of Memphis, approximately 80,000 earthquakes per month, which means the planet experiences one every 30 seconds. However, a large 8.0+ magnitude quake on the Richter scale happens only once per year. The definition and frequency of earthquakes is quite analogous to financial markets – a constant building and releasing of pressure that most of the time is imperceptible to market participants.”
However, global markets undoubtedly experienced a seismic event in late February and early March. When comparing the indicators to October 1987, the Russian debt crisis in 1998, September 11th 2001, the sell off of 2002 and the correction of last May, the magnitude was off the chart! This was not an imperceptible pressure blow off. The NYSE ARMS Indicator, which relates advancing to declining stocks and volume, logged a reading not seen since the crash of October 1987. The CBOE put/call indicator, which relates the number of puts v calls purchased, recorded a more fearful spike than after 9/11 or the sell off in 2002. Gavekal provided no conclusion to these charts, other than to point out that their technical indicators for the US market turned quite violently. They then posed the question, “Will this earthquake be enough to cause lingering damage to the system?”
Our conclusion, volatility is here for the remainder of this year at least and when staring through the abyss it is amazing to see what is on the other side.
4) Optimism - the global economy has been led for some time now by the US economy. The US economy was the most successful economy in the 20th century. Its development during that and the preceding century were built as much on ability to develop and exploit new technologies as on a vast and willing, increasingly skilled labour force. Both of these piggy backed the ‘American Dream’ - a lot of people got rich in the ‘land of opportunity’ because they believed that they could. Although the US economy was the greatest beneficiary during times of expansion, recessions often hit the US harder last century because the nation just didn’t see them coming and was geared up gung ho to opportunity.
The most intelligent comments that we have heard about the direction of the world economy in 2007 have emanated from General Surayud here in Thailand - not needing to pander to or support any particular ‘dream’, he has been very forthright about the imminent slowing of the global economy and the need to de-leverage, adopt austerity measures and brace for the coming impact.
Politicians (and in the widest sense that includes Fed chairmen) don’t have that luxury and find themselves pressured - unless they have the exceptional moral fortitude to stand against the tide and make massively unpopular decisions - into leading the charge of “all is wonderful ... this time it’s different” crowd. This attitude prevails through the markets that want to believe this and this explains why, when symptoms of slow down appear, they are assumed to be proof of soft-landing when equally they could be harbingers of depression.
Forsyth’s Chief Economist, Peter Toogood (appropriate name in this context?) recently wrote: “The next few quarters should see weaker consumer spending in the US due to the lagged effect of monetary tightening, higher gasoline prices and an increasing spillover effect from the housing downturn.” But then, without any further explanation divined that this means a return to ‘normal’ trend growth rates for the next 2-3 years before the race is back on again and that in the meantime, the rest of the world will take up the slack. This is typical of the scenario that is widely presented as what’s likeliest to happen. That’s extremely misleading - this is the best possible scenario that could happen but ignores all of the structural problems facing leveraged western economies over that time.

The above data and research was compiled from sources believed to be reliable. However, neither MBMG International Ltd nor its officers can accept any liability for any errors or omissions in the above article nor bear any responsibility for any losses achieved as a result of any actions taken or not taken as a consequence of reading the above article. For more information please contact Graham Macdonald on [email protected]

Arts - Entertainment - Lifestyles: Let’s go to the movies

Now playing in Chiang Mai – perhaps! Call ahead to check times

Mark Gernpy
Pan’s Labyrinth: Mexico/Spain/US Fantasy/Thriller – A highly regarded film, but likely not shown here, although it had been promoted at Airport Plaza. A one-of-a-kind nightmare set in Fascist Spain of1944. By all reports, not to be missed. Rated R in the US for graphic violence, language. Universal acclaim: 98/85 out of 100.
Sunshine: UK Thriller/Sci-Fi – Fascinating! With echoes of “2001” and other thoughtful science-fiction classics. Outstandingly beautiful visuals, especially at the end when they encounter the Sun/God. Rated R in the US for violent content and language. Mixed or average reviews: 57 out of 100.
Alone (Fad): Thai Thriller – Very much worth seeing. Some genuinely creepy moments, and the story is fascinating, twisty, and well done.
Mr. Bean’s Holiday: UK Comedy – Quite brilliant madcap mime; I enjoyed it. Mixed or average reviews: 50 out of 100.
The Reaping: US Horror – Hilary Swank investigates a small Louisiana town that is suffering from what appear to be the Biblical plagues. Rated R in the US for violence, disturbing images and some sexuality. Generally negative reviews: 33/34 out of 100.
Primeval: US Horror – News crew sent to Africa to capture a legendary crocodile. Ugly violence by nature’s creatures, surpassed by the barbarity of the human warlords. I enjoyed much of it – the country is beautifully photographed – but there are too many upsetting images of chompings and beheadings. Rated R in US, for strong graphic violence, brutality, terror, and language. Generally negative reviews: 35/34 out of 100.
TMNT: Hong Kong/US Animated – “Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles” go around kicking butt. Too frantic, frenetic, and jumpy for my taste, but some excellent animation all the same. Mixed or average reviews: 41/50 out of 100.
The Number 23: US Mystery – Jim Carrey as a man obsessed with a book that appears to be based on his life but ends with a murder that has yet to happen. Rated R in the US for violence, disturbing images, sexuality, and language. Generally negative reviews: 24/35 out of 100.
Blood and Chocolate: US Horror – Apparently even worse than the usual werewolf flick. Generally negative reviews: 33/37 out of 100.
Confession of Pain: Hong Kong Crime/Drama – Tony Leung. From the makers of “Infernal Affairs” (remade as “The Departed,” the wildly successful Martin Scorsese film). Twisty crime thriller.
Bus Lane: Thai comedy – Songkran on a hijacked bus. Dreadful, to gauge from the previews.
Ma Mha (Mid-Road Gang): Thai Comedy – Thailand’s first talking animal picture.
Ghost Station (Goey-Gay): Thai Comedy – Gay cowboys. I’ve seen this. It’s dreadful.
Scheduled for this Thursday, April 19 – but no promises!
Syndromes and a Century: Thai Drama – It will be a miracle if this actually arrives, but it should. It’s an important film by a leading Thai director. If it does show up, see it! It’s the latest self-enclosed cinematic enigma by Apichatpong Weerasethakul, containing some mesmerizing imagery and a miasma-like atmosphere. But, as is his wont, only fits and starts in the way of plot. He’s dealing here with reminiscences, we’re told (though not in the film itself), of the director’s parents, both of them doctors; of their courtship; and of what it was like for him to grow up in a hospital environment. Weerasethakul says that the first half, with its warmer, gentler mood, is for his mother, and the second, where scenes are repeated in brisker and cooler variations and the hospital is an antiseptic urban one, is for his father. Generally favorable reviews: 79 out of 100.
Shooter: US Action/Drama – With Mark Wahlberg. Rated R in the US for graphic violence, language. An edgy thriller about a marksman framed as a Presidential assassin. Mixed or average reviews: 53/56 out of 100.
Me…Myself: Thai Drama/Romance – Amnesiac tries to recall his past memories, with the help of the girl who caused his problem.
The Haunted Drum: Thai Drama/Thriller – Drummer uses haunted drum.
Hannibal Rising: US Horror – Rated R in the US for strong grisly violent content and some language/sexual references. How Hannibal Lecter came about (just what you wanted to know, right?). The beginnings of the most awful killer series with Anthony Hopkins as the psycho-killer. But this one is without that classically-trained actor. Besides, it seems to be just pretty bad. Generally negative reviews: 35/39 out of 100.

Films on DVD for Rental in Chiang Mai: Austere Viewing

The Gospel of John

Mr. I. Dewcritique
There have been numerous attempts to put the life of Christ on film. Scorsese’s controversial Last Temptation of Christ comes to mind along with the more recent and even more pain-filled and dramatic The Passion of Christ by Mel Gibson. Or at the other extreme there was the more romantic interpretation of Jesus of Nazareth from that master of the sweet and sensuous, Franco Zeffirelli. I had not heard anything about this Gospel of John, but after noticing it in a few shops I decided to give it a try. It turned out to be a finely crafted piece of work by a well-qualified British/Canadian team. The director is mainly known for his television work, as is the lead actor, the comely and dignified Henry Ian Cusick. The concept behind the film is quite straightforward. Christopher Plummer, who has appeared in countless films from The Sound of Music to Alexander, reads the gospel in his rich and expressive tones while we see the events described taking place on the screen with the actors speaking their own words where appropriate. The version used is the Good News Bible, which seems an elegant translation that fits the purpose well.
The cinematography certainly deserves praise as the desert settings appear in all their beauty with great attention paid to the exquisite light. The film avoids any drama other than that which is inherent in the story. For example, when Lazarus is raised from the dead we see only his shadow emerging from the tomb, and the angels who announce the resurrection are heard and not seen. The director also seems to have consciously decided to eschew references to great art images of the events recounted here. There is no hint of Leonardo’s Last Supper when we come to the final meal. The influence of Guido Reni’s Ecce Homo may be present when Jesus appears in the Crown of Thorns, but possibly the events of the Passion have been painted so often one simply cannot avoid depicting them in similar ways.
The Jesus shown here is a warm, smiling, refined, slightly New Age figure, definitely human but also confident in his own charisma and status. The film relies heavily on close-ups with a lot of work being done by the actors’ eyes from which we read the characters’ doubts, fears and adoration. The accents are standard and educated.
All this, along with a fairly subdued score with Middle Eastern accents and some more Western Classical scoring as the story darkens, makes for a very tasteful film. It does not, however, make for a very gripping one. One is struck by the beauty and mystical tone of the Fourth Gospel, but of course it was not written as a screenplay and the sequence of the various episodes is quite jerky. Then there are the long theological discourses- whatever their importance, they do not offer much opportunity to the camera, which repeatedly circles the faces of Jesus’ auditors. The film is three hours long and although there are plenty of memorable moments and scenes [the Via Dolorosa and Crucifixion are very impressive], there are also moments of tedium.
For a Christian who wants to recall John’s Gospel or someone who wants to learn some more about the New Testament this is an excellent choice. It is not, however, and perhaps was never intended to be, particularly entertaining; there are more cinematic versions available for those who want them.

Your Health & Happiness: NGOs call for protection of HIV-infected persons

AIDS NGO representatives and activists have dismissed a draft law on the protection of HIV-infected persons in Thailand as discriminatory to the people it seeks to protect.
The draft law titled “The Act on Protection of HIV-Infected Persons and AIDS Patients (B.E.)” could reverse the country’s efforts to effectively respond to HIV and AIDS, said many of the civil society activists.
AIDS NGO representatives and activists said that government drafted the law without the consultation and participation of people living with HIV.
In the draft law, people living with HIV are referred to as “dangerous” and “special persons” who must be separated from society to protect the general public from the disease.
There are fears that if the law is passed, it will drive the disease underground as people will be afraid to know their status.
“It’s a legal and policy tragedy, and we feel that out efforts will be belittled by the law,” said Khun Supatra Nakapiew, director of the Thai National Coalition on AIDS (TNCA) and Center for AIDS Rights (CAR).
Civil society activists warned that the draft law initiative could backfire because, rather than protect, it stigmatizes and discriminates people living with HIV.
They further added that draft law will make people living with HIV reluctant to obtain services for HIV prevention, treatment, and care.
The draft law proposes the setting up of special hospitals and schools for people living with HIV, and their children. It also proposes to separate people living with HIV from their children. The draft law also empowers the state to segregate and detain people living with HIV.
The assumption is that ostracizing people living with HIV will control the spread of the disease.
The draft law gives the government permission to monitor and criminalize private personal acts of people living with HIV. A clause in the law authorizes public health workers to separate or detain people living with HIV. Little to nothing is mentioned about how to improve the quality of life of people living with HIV in the draft law.
“The network is opposed to this law because we were not included in the drafting process. We want to be accepted like other people. If this law is passed, we will go back 20-30 years in the epidemic, when people living with HIV were discriminated. The incidence and prevalence of the disease will increase. People will not want to reveal their status to avoid criminalization,” said Boontawee Yodruan, chairperson of the Thai Network of People living with HIV/AIDS (TNP+)
Essentially, civil society activists believe the draft law will lead to the infringement of the human rights of people living with HIV as well as perpetuate stigma.
“After reading the law, I realized that it is not there to protect but infringe on people’s rights, making lives of people living with HIV even more difficult. People living with HIV do not want any special status, therefore there’s no need to pass a law to give them special status,” said Yodruan, “If the law is passed, there will be a severe impact on society. People will be more reluctant to get tested for HIV to avoid being criminalized.”
“I don’t think we should penalize people with HIV,” said a public prosecutor, “We should treat people living with HIV as fellow human beings.”
“This draft law will create more problems than any good, so we will oppose it,” said Khun Supatra Nakapiew.
“If the law is passed, then we will take the case to the constitutional court,” said Yodruan.
The Thai Network of people living with HIV/AIDS (TNP+), AIDSAccess, CAR and TNCA have already submitted a petition to the National Human Rights Commission’s Chairperson, the Office of the Prime Minister and the State Council.